Hopper or locust?

Hoppers and locusts have been judged as single order until recently - entomolite (Orthoptera). But we know a sufficient number of marks to split them into separate orders. Inasmuch as, that I met the replacement of hopper for locust many times, I decided to write this acrticle describing the main differences.

Hoppers - (Ensifera)

Hoppers are split in three large suborders namely : Right hoppers (Tettigonioidea),balm cricket (Grylloidea) and hoppers (Gryllacridoidea). The first two mentioned suborders live in open nature, the hopper is possible to see only in glass house of botanic gardens. Worldwide is known 8000 kinds, 40 kinds affects our country.

Anatomical structure: the maximum lenght of the hoppers is about 50mm in local conditions, the body is little bit oblated on the sides. The head is turned down, where are thin but long tentaculates, sometimes longer than the complete hopper body. Compound eyes, much generous mandibles. Two pairs of different wings. The main function in the life of hoppers are lims. Back famurs are ample and important for the movement by air. Soles are quadric at the most kinds of hoppers, balm cricket has only three pediphalanxs. Females are furnished with a long curved kladékem for egg-laying.



Occurence : They occupyed different biotopes - forest edge, clears,fields,meadows,gardens, hillsides etc. They are mostly warm-requiring and the time of the main occurrence in in the middle of summer and early autumn. Males are able to stridulate (sound),these sounds are caused by friction of front wings. Some kinds of hoppers is possible to know regarding the stridulous sounds.

Nurture: The nurture is not the same for the all orders of hoppers. Most of hoppers are predatory, hunt houseflyes, budworms,butterflyes and their egges. Crickets and some originate hoppers are herbivore. Mole cricket is omnivorous, hunting the budworms,gnathostoma and lush grass.



Locust - (Caelifera)

The way of life is much more united than at hoppers. We can split them into two families- Locust originál and maršovití­ . Wordwode is known about 10000 kinds of locust, here about 40 kinds and in Slovakia little bit more.

Anatomical structure: The size of locust is about 40mm, but same can be about 60mm eg: Locust migratory (Locusta moratoria). The body is oblated on sides and the color is mostly brown or green. Compound eyes are clearly visible, sometimes there are also single eyes (ocelli). Tentaculed are relatively short,sometimes heavy on the top. The wings are mostly developed, but some kinds are shortwinged. Two pairs with different shape. Back wings are often colored (red,pink,yellow,blue). The movement of locust is very slow, in case of dangerous it is able to make a big jump or short fly not long away.

Occurence: They live in open landscape as meadow,savanas, forest edge and gardens. Mostly they resides in a short grass and low vegetation. The most agile they are during sunny days in summer and early autumn.



Nurture : Locusts are almost herbivore eating the different hard vegetable nettings, which they are able masticate with hard mandible.

Locusts and hoppers are developed by incomplete modification. There are three level of development : egg - budworm(nympha) -imago (adult subject). A budworm has exuviation very often,and by the time is more similar as imago. Mostly five stages of budworm. From the last stage the imago is created, where are defferentiate with complete developed wings, availability of genitals and size. There is no resting stage during this process, without interruption.

Locust female oviposits more leggs in ready glenoid hole together a secret, which protects the whole brew. Fresh-engendered budworm climp up the ground and they get the exuviation immediately



Main differences

Hopper : long feelers, longer than body. Long curved oviposit organum at the end of abdomen (females).Omnivore (hunting small incests)

Locust: short feelers not exceeding the lenght of the head, without oviosit organum